The puparium splits open as the imago forces its way out. Females are 1.1 – 1.2 mm long; males are slightly smaller. Bad boll opening in matured bolls and reduces the quality of cotton. They are stalked and sub elliptical in shape. In warm or tropical climates and especially in greenhouses, whiteflies present major problems in crop protection. Nymph is greenish-yellow oval in outline, along with puparium on the undersurface of the leaves. Yassin, A. M. (1978) Whitefly-borne virus diseases of important crop plants in the Sudan. 7. The temperature around 30 ºC and high humid situations help multiplication of the pest. Adopt crop rotation with non-preferred hosts such as sorghum, ragi, maize, etc., to check the build-up of the pest.

Eggs are laid on the undersurface of tender leaves in group and hatch in 3-5 days. The incubation period varies from 3-5 days during spring and summer, 5-17 during autumn, and >30 days during winter. It belongs to family Cicadellidae and order Homoptera. Tag: Whitefly Scientific Name Whiteflies or White Fly in Cotton | Pandhari Mashi in 2020 Update, Mostly Attack Insect in Crop 29/11/2019 05/05/2020 agritechguru Pesticide use is not ideal in the case of controlling whitefly and widespread contamination can be costly; it is best to avoid this problem with aggressive preventive measures. During the end of the cotton season, the adults migrate to other crops such as crucifers, cucurbits, and malvaceous plants. I am Given to Training to Farmers about Organic Farming and Organic Products, and Practices to Crop……….. Generally infests the crop from November to February. The final instar feeds for a while, then undergoes changes within its skin, ceasing feeding and growing a new skin, forming what amounts to pupa. Supplemental Material: Annu.

Monitor the activities of the adult whiteflies by setting up yellow pan traps and sticky traps at 1-foot height Also monitor through in situ counts.

May be downloaded from: Hahbazvar, Nasrin S; Ahragard, Ahad S; Osseini, Reza H; Ajizadeh, Jalil H. A preliminarily study on adult characters of whiteflies Entomofauna Zeitschrift Für Entomologie Band 32, Heft 30: 413-420 ISSN 0250-4413 November 2011. 9 Spray NSKE 5% and neem oil 5 ml or fish oil rosin soap at 1 kg / 40 L of water (or) in combination with a recommended dose of insecticide (2 ml/L). Hosts/Species Affected Top of page The total world record of greenhouse whitefly host plants is approximately 859 species, belonging to 469 genera in 121 families. The wing venation is reduced, like that of the Psyllidae, only generally much more so. The Aleyrodidae are a family in the suborder Sternorrhyncha and at present comprise the entire superfamily Aleyrodoidea, related to the superfamily Psylloidea. Avoid the alternative cultivated host crops of the Whitefly (Brinjal, Bhendi, Tomato, and Tobacco) in the vicinity of the Cotton crop. These problems are complicated by difficulties in classifying and detecting new whitefly biotypes and begomoviruses. ETL:                                          5-10 nymphs / leaf. The stage before the adult is called a pupa, though it shares little in common with the pupal stage of holometabolous insects. In doing so the insect does not shed the larval skin, which it retains as a protective puparium and which dries out. The compound eyes themselves however, are rather remarkable; there are many examples in entomology in which the upper and lower regions of the compound eye differ both functionally and anatomically, and in some families that are adapted to living on water surfaces, such as the Gyrinidae, they even may be divided into upper and lower eyes for vision in air and under water.

Udamoselinae Leaves curl upwards and the plant vigor reduces. [16] Care should be taken to ensure that the insecticide used will not kill the natural predators of whiteflies. It appears to be involved in the expulsion of honeydew, and in fact at one time was wrongly assumed to be the organ that produced the honeydew. They eat mostly insect eggs, but will also feed on beetle larvae, aphids, scale insects, and young caterpillars. Eggs are laid on leaves. 8. punctatum (Schumach. Within the orifice beneath the operculum there is a tongue-like lingula. More than 1550 species have been described. [2][5], This pupal stage is analogous to the pupal forms of the Endopterygota and it raises questions of terminology and concept. Specific insecticide information and guidance for the fig whitefly is available from the University of Florida.

Collect and remove whitefly infested leaves from the plants and those which were shed due to the attack of the pest and destroy them. They are found in large numbers on the underside of leaves. vasiform orifice length > caudal furrow), sides of orifice almost straight. [7], Both sexes have functional mouthparts and two pairs of membranous, functional wings; the rear wings are neither much reduced, nor modified into any such hooked or haltere-like structures as occur in some other Hemiptera such as many of the Coccoidea. From then until it emerges as an adult, it remains attached to the plant by its mouthparts. McAuslane, Heather J. ETL:                                          5-10 nymphs / leaf, 1. Polston. Nymphs are yellowish and brownish, sub elliptical, and scale-like. After fertilisation the pedicel shrivels into a stalk. The digestive system of the Aleyrodidae is typical of the Sternorrhyncha, including a filter chamber, and all active stages of the Aleyrodidae accordingly produce large quantities of honeydew; the anus is adapted to presentation of honeydew to symbiotic species, mainly ants; the honeydew emerges from the anus, which is inside an opening called the vasiform orifice on the dorsal surface of the caudal segment of the abdomen. Whiteflies share a modified form of hemimetabolous metamorphosis, in that the immature stages begin life as mobile individuals, but soon attach to host plants. Other plants with a similar function include the hummingbird bush, pineapple sage, and bee balm. [13] This is the worst viral disease transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii. [10], There generally are four larval instars. Use white fly tolerant varieties like LK 861, Amravathi, Kanchan, Supriya, LPS 141 2. 1. Whiteflies feed by tapping into the phloem of plants, introducing toxic saliva and decreasing the plants' overall turgor pressure. Whiteflies are Hemipterans that typically feed on the undersides of plant leaves. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 150: 13–29, Figs. Gossypium lanceolatum Tod.

Although several species of whitefly may cause some crop losses simply by sucking sap when they are very numerous, the major harm they do is indirect. A nymphal period is 5-33 days in summer, 17-73 days in winter. Normark, Benjamin B. The pupal period is 2-8 days. Major Insect Pests of Cotton The main or major insect pests of cotton that cause economic loss to this crop are given below with their scientific names, order and family name. The legs of Aleyrodidae are well developed and fairly long, but gracile, and in contrast to Psyllidae, not adapted to leaping. The tarsi have two segments of roughly equal length.

Companion planting with French marigolds protects tomato plants from glasshouse whiteflies through the emission of airborne limonene. Vegetative growth is retarded, boll formation hampered. A combination of cultural practices and need-based insecticidal applications keep a check of whitefly populations.

It is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Old and New Worlds.There are about 50 Gossypium species, making it the largest genus in the tribe Gossypieae, and new species continue to be discovered. Bemisia tabaci and B. argentifolii transmit African cassava mosaic, bean golden mosaic, bean dwarf mosaic, bean calico mosaic, tomato yellow leaf curl, tomato mottle, and other Begomoviruses, in the family Geminiviridae.