And how is synchronisation achieved? The grid length is fixed and static and thus easy to equalize between sources at the connection point by phase-shifting methods unless some passive power factor correction is requested. In wood the speed of sound varies with grain direction because the transverse modulus of elasticity is as little as 1/20 the longitudinal value. Why is Soulknife's second attack not Two-Weapon Fighting? The speed of electrons is much slower...slower than walking pace. Perhaps people are interested in the answer. How does the Electrical Grid React to Large Changes in Supply or Demand? First of all: I am a computer science student, so I don't have much knowledge of physics. The area of the cross section is 1.9*10^-5 square meters. So the formula for the coaxial geometry turns out to be quite general (note $c=1/\sqrt{\epsilon_0 \mu_0}$). site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. In a circuit one light-second long, does it matter where in the circuit the switch is placed? (The B-field goes like 1/r, so its integral goes to infinity logarithmically at both 0 and infinity). The filler material between the conductors matters too: its electric polarizability (quantified by the dielectric constant $\epsilon$, which is typically 2-5 times the value for free space $\epsilon_0$) slows down the signal speed.

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And how is synchronisation achieved? We added some dead time to each element of the circuit, but we didn't add dead time to the wires of the circuit. So there are two speeds. Both affect the propagation velocity, but dielectric constant is much more likely to be significantly different between materials you might use to insulate a wire. How to consider rude(?) Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. Electric current can give you an idea of how fast electricity may travel. Where does energy in electricity come from? What does commonwealth mean in US English? Or only on aggregate from the individual holdings? Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for electronics and electrical engineering professionals, students, and enthusiasts. To calculate the propagation speed, you need to specify the return current path in addition to the "forward" path. You wire the bulbs across the big switch so they pulse as the grid and generator slip into and out of phase sync, trim the throttle to get the pulsing to become very slow, then just as the lights fade out you throw the switch. How exactly does the grid handle small deviations in power consumption? When you open the throttles the rotor eventually settles to a new angle relative to the rotating field such that the torque from the interaction of the fields exactly matches the torque from your drive. Is there a formal name for a "wrong question"? Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. Let's take a piece of copper wire 5 mm in diameter. For most of the copper wire and traces you see, about 60% the speed of light in a vacuum. Can the President of the United States pardon proactively?

rev 2020.11.24.38066, Sorry, we no longer support Internet Explorer, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Physics Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. The speed varies on the medium of which the electron travels. I assume this is some sort of propagation formulae taking into account the resistance of the material or similar, but I have no idea where to being, and I am a complete novice at electronics so please go easy on me :). What happens in circuits where the propagation time of the electric field is significant? I believe the infinite self inductance is an artifact due to infinitely thin wires, that disappears when you consider a finite radius. Use MathJax to format equations. Also lets image the same scenario with a 100 meter cable. Simple - no. It's more complicated than that, the propagation speed is going to be based on both the wire and the dielectric constant of the material around the wire. Quick link too easy to remove after installation, is this a problem? Think the difference between the speed of sound and the wind. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Service. @jippie That is a great link, thank you very much :). How much more time will pass before it has reached the other end of the cable? Use MathJax to format equations. Hard to predict which will be the dominating part.

What does "no long range" mean on the soulknife rogue subclass mean? Generally, the signal velocity is somewhat close to the speed of light in vacuum. So please keep your answers simple. The wave (energy) moves through the medium much faster than the medium itself.

How often are encounters with bears/mountain lions/etc? How does linux retain control of the CPU on a single-core machine? I hear that bare speed on a copper wire is still two thirds of light. You want to read about the telegrapher's equations, which in a first lossless approximation yield a speed of propagation $v = 1/\sqrt{LC}$, where $L$ and $C$ are the inductance and capacitance of your circuit. It is also limited by the relative magnetic permeability, \$\mu _r\$ in the wire or closely coupled around it, as this would occur in magnetic components. Do you need something else to calculate the speed? Transferring data at a rate of 100Mbps means we are encoding 100,000,000 bits of data on to the wire every second (ignore fancy encoding techniques that reduce this). Do you need something else to calculate the speed? Much of the local distribution grid is grounded coaxial cable to reduce radio noise and lightning interference, which has insulation. Why did MacOS Classic choose the colon as a path separator? Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. it is proportional to the square root of the frequency. Why this question has so many broad and overrated. Convey 'is raised' in mathematical context. Thanks for your answer! By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy.

In your case that would be some plastic and air. There is no recognized independent effect of species of wood on the speed of sound. Thanks for contributing an answer to Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange! Now assuming any given generator is a small part of the grid, what happens when you throttle up is interesting, because the speed does not change (modulo any increase in grid frequency which impacts all generating stations equally), but you start pouring torque into trying to accelerate the whole grid (raise its frequency). I understand you are already aware that the signal, i.e. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. So worst case 5.3 ns/m * 10 meters is 53ns. Is a software open source if its source code is published by its copyright owner but cannot be used without a license? Is there a travelling speed of for electric field? The musicians are the generators of power on the grid. The conductor is the government or independent organization that controls the cesium-time coordinated synchronization of the grid in each country. site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. What I'm saying is, when you say speed of electricity, I think you mean the speed of current, which is pretty fast, or the speed of electrons, which is also pretty fast, or the drift, which is pretty slow. Do ETFs move on their own? How to solve this puzzle of Martin Gardner?

Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. There is a simple answer and a complicated answer. For the second part of your question, check out ANSI type 25 relays, aka 'sync check' relays. A cubic meter of copper, by contrast, contains about 8.46 * 10^28 electrons, or about 13 billion coulombs. The speed of sound across the grain is about one-fifth to one-third of the longitudinal value. Closing the switch puts the machine on line and locks it in sync with the grid, if it was slightly slow it will motor (absorbing power from the grid) to get up to speed, if slightly fast it will generate until the speed matches the grid. As Jaime mentions in the comments below, there will be some additional "internal" inductance due to the magnetic fields within the conductors which will reduce the velocity; that bit is geometry-dependent.